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科技英语语法_同位语从句_名词性从句_定语从句_图文

2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 2 同位语从句
1、一般情况 (1)公式

§5. 2 同位语从句 The latter(后一)form has the advantage that it can be extended(扩展) to complex quantities .
+ 某些抽象名词 +

the this a/an O no
形容词 物主代词

that从句[“that”在
从句中无词义、无 成分]

③ “动宾译法”:这时该“抽象名词” 来自于可带有宾语从句的及物动词。

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 2 同位语从句
(2)译法 ① “~ 这一 ……” 的

§5. 2 同位语从句 During the past several years, there has been an increasing [a growing] recognition [realization; awareness] within business(商务)and academic(学术的) circles(界)that certain nations have evolved(发展)into information societies .

The assumption that β = constant is often made to simplify analysis. R = r is the condition that power delivered(提供)by a given source is a maximum .

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 2 同位语从句 Here we have used the definition (定义)that acceleration(加速度)is the rate(速率)of change of velocity .
② 这一 ……:~ 以下的

§5. 2 同位语从句 The main theoretical development in this decade(十年)has been in the recognition that material properties should be included in analytical models . This is equivalent to a statement that everything is attracted by the earth.

This account for(解释)the observation(观察到的情况)that the resistivity of a metal increases with temperature .

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 2 同位语从句

§5. 2 同位语从句

A consequence(结果)of the discovery of electricity was the observation that metals are good conductors while nonmetals are poor conductors .

③ “there is every possibility that …” →
“完全有可能……”

There is every possibility that satisfactory results will be obtained.

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 2 同位语从句
(3)几个句型: ① “there is evidence that …”→ “有证据表明……”

§5. 2 同位语从句
2、由名词从句转变成的同位语从句(实 际上在从句前省去了“of;about;on;as to”) ★The question now arises whether this series(级数)converges(收敛).

There is evidence that Ohm’s law applies only to metallic conductors.

The reader may have no idea what this symbol stands for.

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 2 同位语从句

§5. 2 同位语从句

② “there is no doubt that …”→ “毫无疑问……”

There is no doubt that mercury(水银) is a metal .

The users have no guarantee(保证) how long this kind of device will be operating.

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句
1、一般情况 (1)引导词 ① 连接词:在从句中无成分

§5. 3 名词从句
(2)采用形式主语“it”的几个句型 ① “it is well known that …”→“众所 周知,……”

that → (无词义) whether → “是否” if →“是否”(只能引导宾语从句时用)

It is well known that Ohm’s law applies only to metallic conductors.
② “it is clear [evident; apparent; obvious] that …” →“显然;很清楚……”

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句
② 连接代词:在从句中要作某一成 分。科技文中常用的有: ★ what →“什么”、“……的 [内 容;方向;情况;话;……]”

§5. 3 名词从句 It is clear that this equation has two roots(根).
③ “it follows that …”→ “(由此)得出 [到]……;因此……”

which → “哪个 [本;枝;……]、
哪些”

From Ohm’s law it follows that the current is directly proportional to the applied voltage.

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句
③ 连接副词:在从句中一般作状语

§5. 3 名词从句
④ “it does not matter …”→ “……是 没有关系的”

when → “何时;……的时间” where → “何地;……的地点” why → “为何;…….的理由” how → “如何;……的方式[原理]”

It does not matter how the two numbers are added.
⑤ “it makes no difference …”→ “……是没有区别的”

It makes no difference where the radiation(辐射)comes from.

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句
(3)以介词开头的主语从句和宾语从句 (≠ 介词宾语从句 [它是介词后的一个完整 句子])

§5. 3 名词从句 It is necessary to find(求出)what that angle is.
② “what” 是 一 个 复 合 关 系 代 词 (what = the thing[s] that):译成“的 [话;情况;内容;东西;原因;方 向;……]”

It does not basically make any difference in which direction an NPN transistor is operated(运用).

What I have said above is not necessarily correct.

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句 You must determine for what values of x the following series(级数)is convergent(收敛的).
***The potential energy of a body depends upon where we choose the base height(基高)h = 0 to be.

§5. 3 名词从句 What this book deals with is very useful. Its actual ( 实 际 的 ) direction is opposite to what has been assumed. Energy is what brings changes to materials. This is close to what has been observed.

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句
2、“what-从句”(主要在汉译时对 “what”这个词的处理问题) (1)普通情况 ① “what” 是一个疑问代词,译成: “什么;哪个[本;…]”或“多大[表示尺 寸、大小、数值]”

§5. 3 名词从句 Gas takes the shape of what is holding (存放)it. What a battery does is to change chemical energy into electrical energy. The turning of the earth on its own axis is what makes the change from day to night .

It is necessary to understand what inertia(惯性)is .

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句 The particular mix(混合)of these frequencies is what determines the pitch (音调)of a person’s voice. The simplified assumptions do not correspond to what actually takes place in operation.

§5. 3 名词从句
(2)几个特殊句型的译法 ① “what is called + 补足语”→ 译 成“人们所说的[所称的;所谓的] + 补足 语” 注:“called”可用“named; termed; described as; known as; recognized as; referred to as; spoken of as等”来替代, 它们也可以是主动语态。

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句

§5. 3 名词从句 In 1895, a German physicist discovered what are known as X rays . Sending a signal from one place to another is what is referred to as transmission(传输). Late in 1947, they discovered what was later to be named the “transistor” effect(效应).

To compose(编写)a book of finite length(有限篇幅), the material must be tailored(使适合)to what the reader needs to know and already knows.

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句

§5. 3 名词从句 In order to explain what are commonly called electrical effects, it is necessary to ascribe(归因)to certain “particles” the property of charge . Fig. 2 shows an NPN transistor in what is known as the common-emitter configuration(共发电路).

注:“what”的上述两种译法到底应采 用哪一种,只能通过试探来确定。如:

They don’t know what we need. What we need is a computer.

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句

§5. 3 名词从句
③ “what + 系动词 + 表语[特别是名 词时]”→ 只译“表语”

我们所说的机器人( robot)只不过是一 种特殊的电子设备(electronic device)。

This concept can be introduced in what is a clear and concise(简明的) manner. After so many years, the bottom of the sea rose up and became what is now the stone forest(石林).

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句

§5. 3 名词从句 What is more important to the programmer is that for the computer to understand an instruction ( 指 令 ) , it must be represented in binary(二进制).
***A scientific law is merely(仅仅) a statement of what we believe to be true (真实的).

What we call a robot is no more than [just] a special kind of electronic device.
注:“so-called”为形容词,一般表示贬 义,所以在科技文中不常用。

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句
② “in what follows”(= in what is to follow = in all that follows = in the following):译成“在下面”。

§5. 3 名词从句
④ “what it is [they are]”→ 可译成 “现在这个样子”或“it, they”所代的名词

In what follows, we use t to stand for time.

“what it was [they were] →可译成 “原来[过去]那个样子”或“it, they”所代 的名词

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句 After a chemical change, a substance is changed to something different from what it was. In this case, the magnetic induction (磁感应强度)is 5500 times what it was .

§5. 3 名词从句
(3)“whatever”引导的名词从句 ① 当在从句中起名词作用时,

“whatever” = “anything that”

The term “force” may be interpreted(解释)as whatever may be producing the distortion(形变).

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句 On the surface of the moon, the gravitational force(重力)on a body is only 1/6 what it is here on the earth. (= … only 1/6 that [the gravitational force] here on the earth.)
注:由于“what”这个引导词的特殊性, 它可以引导“补足语从句”。

§5. 3 名词从句 During these expansions(膨胀) the piston(活塞)exerts a force on whatever it is attached(连接)to, and thereby performs work.
② 当在从句中起形容词作用时, “whatever”= “any + 它修饰的名词 + that”

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 3 名词从句

§5. 3 名词从句 Pressure(压力)is always perpendicular to(垂直于)whatever surface is being acted upon(作用). These instruments can indicate the d-c component(成分;分量)of whatever signal may be under observation .

It was genius(天才)that made Faraday(法拉第)what he was. [ What has made Red China what she is?]

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句
1、引导词 它有双重作用: A、在从句中一定有成分; B、一定要代替前面某个名词[或 整个主句]。一般代哪个词,从句就 定那个词。

§5. 4 定语从句 There is no material but will deform
(形变)more or less under the action of

forces . With the introduction of the electronic computer, there is not a single complicated problem but can be solved in a few hours .

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句
(1)分类 ① 关系代词

§5. 4 定语从句
② 关系副词

that:用于人或物;一般不能引导
非限制性定语从句

which:只能用于事、物 who:只能用于人(在从句中作主语) whose:用于人或事、物(在从句中
作定语,译成“其”)

where:在科技文中主要修饰表达式、 公式、关系式、方程式,译成“这里、式中、 其中”[ = in which];还可修饰地点、程度、 情况(place,point,degree,extent,case, situation)等 when:修饰时间 (time, moment, instant, point, occasion, cycle, day, …)

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 as:科技文中主要用于事、物(它有
固定词义“像……那样[的]”) *but:= that/which/who … not

§5. 4 定语从句 why:修饰“reason”一词 whereby:= by which wherein:= in which as:= in which (主要出现在“in the same way/manner/direction as …”
中 )

This device can produce a sound “ditdah-dit”(滴-嗒-滴)that a radio operator who knows the Morse code(莫尔斯电码) will interpret(翻译)as the letter R .

whence:= from which (从句中的谓语

一般总是省去的)

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 Ohm’s law can be written as V = IR where V represents voltage, I — current and R — resistance . Electromagnetic induction(感应) is the means(方法)whereby nearly all the world’s electric power is produced .

§5. 4 定语从句 Anything that is hot radiates heat.
② 先行词被序数词修饰时

The first component(元件)that will be chosen in design is the transistor.
③ 先行词被形容词最高级修饰时

Computers are the most efficient assistants that man has ever had .

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句

§5. 4 定语从句 This is the largest aircraft that has ever been manufactured in China .
④ 先行词被“only,no,very,any”修饰时

The phenomenon is analogous to striking ( 敲 ) a bell ( 铃 ) a sharp mechanical blow ( 猛 击 ) with a hammer(锤子), whence the origin of the term “ringing(振铃) .”

The only thing that must be done is to measure the voltage across the capacitor(电容器).

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句
(2)在修饰事物时,只能用“ that”而 不能用“which”的场合: ① 先行词为不定代词(“something” 除外)

§5. 4 定语从句
(3)在“介词+which” 开头的定语从句 中,“介词”的选择法 ① “介词”是从句中某个动词、形容 词或名词所要求的

All that the user has to do in order to access the records is start a web browser(网浏览器)and visit the web site(网址).

The material of which this conductor is made is copper.

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 The concept of the “computer center” as a room with a large computer to which users bring their work for processing is now totally obsolete(过时了). β is the amount of amplification(放大) of which a transistor is capable.

§5. 4 定语从句 pressure frequency the temperature rate height

at which …

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 How to live longer is a question to which man has tried to find a good answer for hundreds of years .
② “介词”是主句中的被定词所要求的

§5. 4 定语从句 method procedure the process scheme means

by which …

One of the great advantages of AC is the ease with which its voltage can be changed .

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 The accuracy of measurement depends on the instrument used and the care with which the reading is made .

§5. 4 定语从句 care skill ease difficulty efficiency accuracy precision rapidity

the The frequency depends on the purpose for which the device is designed .

with which …

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句
③ “介词”根据全句所要表达的意 思来确定

§5. 4 定语从句
(2)关系代词在从句中作介词宾语而 把介词置于从句末尾时(在科技文中不常 见)

The substance in which there are many free electrons is a good conductor.

Copper is one of the metals we are most familiar with .
(3)在下述名词后可省去关系副词或 “介词 + which”,也可用关系副词“that” 来替代。

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句
2、引导词可省去的场合(只能在限 制性定语从句中) (凡在一个句中有两个谓语而找不到 任何并列连词和从句引导词时,则一般隐 藏了一个定语从句,从两个毫不相干的名 词中间分开来就可找出定语从句来。)

§5. 4 定语从句 the time [moment, instant, cycle, point, day, …] the reason the way [manner] the direction the distance the amount the number of times [units, places “位”, days, …]

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句
(1)关系代词在从句中作及物动词 的宾语时

§5. 4 定语从句 The current starts flowing at the moment the circuit is closed . The diagram(图)shows the way the current changes with time . The product(乘积)of the force and the distance a body moves is called work.

All clocks do is cause interrupts at well-defined intervals . In this case the power in the load will be the maximum the source is capable of supplying .

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 The amount a solid material will expand when heated is measured by its coefficient(系数)of linear expansion
(线膨胀).

§5. 4 定语从句

These are the books there are on the subject . Maxwell’s four equations summarize (概括)everything there is to know on electromagnetism(电磁学).

The voltage gain(增益)is the number of times a stage(级), or a number of stages, amplifies the signal .

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 It is necessary to count the number of places(位)the decimal point(十进制小数点)has been shifted
(移动). ***试区分下面两句中“that从句”的 种类:

§5. 4 定语从句
(5)关系代词在从句作表语时

They went there for the simple reason that they wanted to learn something new.

Communicating via(通过)satellite is no longer the novelty(新奇事)it once was .

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 The reason that they went there was that they wanted to learn something new. (4)关系代词在定语从句中作“there be”句型的主语时 The thermometer(温度计)does not tell us about the amount of heat there is in the liquids .

§5. 4 定语从句 The total energy of the spring(弹 簧)at all times equals the value it was originally . It is unfortunate(不幸的)that early cancer(癌症)is painless(不疼 的); otherwise, cancer would not be the problem it is .

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句

§5. 4 定语从句 The two elements of which water is made are oxygen and hydrogen. The force of which we are aware in our daily life is the force of gravitational attraction(重力) exerted on every physical body by the earth.

In the case of the theory of relativity(相对论), space and time are not the independent entities(独立 的东西)they were always believed to be.

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西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句
3、以“of which”开头的定语从 句

§5. 4 定语从句 This is the maximum amount of amplification(放大)of which the transistor is capable .
(2)“of which”在从句中作定语 ★ 这时“of which”在从句中修饰宾语和 表语;也可修饰主语(这时是为了加强语 气,一般意为“其中”,也可放在主语 后)。

(1)“of

which”在从句中作状语:“of”

是从句中动词或形容词所要求的。

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 consist of be composed of be made of be made up of be constructed of be built of capable of descriptive of representative of characteristic of symptomatic of aware of

§5. 4 定语从句 The vector(矢量)sum is the diagonal (对角线)of a parallelogram(平行四边形) of which the given vectors form two sides . When a single bond(键)cannot rotate rapidly, two identical(相同的) functional groups(功能团)are chemically non-equivalent, of which Fig. 2 – 11 is an example .

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 The line of action(作用线)is a line of infinite(无限的)length, of which the force vector is a segment(段). I am particularly grateful(感激的)to the editors(编辑)of the series(丛书)of which this book is a part .

§5. 4 定语从句 The nucleus(原子核)is itself made up of elementary particles(基本 粒子)of which there are two principal (主要的)sorts(种): protons(质子) and neutrons(中子). There are over 100 elements known, of which 92 [= 92 of which] have been found in nature .

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 The equivalent resistance(等效电阻) of a set(组)of interconnected resistors is the value of the single resistor that can be substituted(替代)for the entire set without affecting the current that flows in the rest of any circuit of which it is a part .

§5. 4 定语从句
4、“介词+which”在从句中作普通定 语时一般要放在被定词之后

An alternating(交变的)current is a current the direction of which changes regularly . The open end of the tube is connected to the apparatus(设备)the pressure within which is to be measured .

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 We can find a few conditions of which only two [= only two of which] are necessary . All matter consists of one or more basic materials called elements, of which there are over 100 .

§5. 4 定语从句 This equation is of the form dx (t) / dt + ax (t) = b the solution to which is x (t) = b/a + Ae-at . What we understand by a field(域) is a region at every point of which there is a corresponding value of some physical function .

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句

§5. 4 定语从句 in accordance with which … on the basis of which … because of which … by virtue of which … There are no simpler quantities in terms of which length and time may be expressed .

其上面每一点的Y坐标( coordinate ) 均为零的曲线就是x轴(axis)。

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句

§5. 4 定语从句 Any mechanical device by means of which heat is converted into work is called a heat engine(热机). We keep all the variables(变量)of the function(函数)constant except one with respect to which we are differentiating
(微分).

The curve the Y-coordinate of every point on which is zero is just the x-axis.

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句
5、以“短语介词+which” (在从句中 只能作状语)开头的定语从句

§5. 4 定语从句

by means of which … in terms of which … as a result of which … with respect to which … according to which …

Chemistry deals with changes in matter as a result of which it is possible to form a new substance .

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句
6、由“which”引导的、修饰前面整个 主句(或其一部分)的非限制性定语从句: 这时“which”一般译成“this”;有时在过去 时或将来时时,可译成“that”。 (1)修饰整个主句的情况

§5. 4 定语从句
② ~[主句], in which case



at which time [level] for which reason A standard may be an actual object, in which case its main characteristic must be durability(强度;耐久性).

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 shows indicates means … ① ~[主句],which implies illustrates is Simplification(简化)results if one axis coincides(重合)with one of the forces, which is always possible .

§5. 4 定语从句 Points A and B are an infinitesimal
(无限小的)distance apart, in which case the cord(弦)and arc(弧)are equal.

This circuit was analyzed previously (see Fig. 5 – 21), at which time we obtained the following expression(表达式).

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句 The image(像)distance is positive, which means the image is a real one(实
像).

§5. 4 定语从句
③ ~[主句], after which



***The output voltage is the integral
(积分)of the input signal, in conformity with(与……一致) harmonic-circuit analysis(谐波电路分析法).

from which because of which as a result of which A beam of white light is separated(分解) into beams of various colors, from which we conclude(下结论)that white light is actually a mixture of light of these different colors .

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2015/12/2 Wednesday

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句
(2)修饰主句的某一部分(不常见)

§5. 4 定语从句 Chains(链条)give a more compact (结实的) drive (传动) than is possible with belts(皮带). Many more problems are presented than need be given as homework assignments .

Metals can conduct electricity, which non-metals cannot . You might think it’s because Excel has so many great features, which it does . If a is small, which it is in this case, then tan a = a .

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句

§5. 4 定语从句

Doing so, which requires a much greater analysis effort, yields the following expression(表达式).

This text concentrates on an understanding of computers at a lower level than is found in a text that introduces programming in a higher-level language .

西安电子科技大学

西安电子科技大学

§5. 4 定语从句
7、由“than”引导的定语从句(“than” 在从句中作主语或宾语,但它仍具有“比” 的含义)

§5. 4 定语从句
8、由时间状语从句(when, while, as, since, before, after)修饰其前面名词的情况

The book doesn’t go into more detail than a student wants . A system which provides more energy at the output than is given at the input is said to be active .

Let us consider the case when the torque(力矩)is zero . We must first determine the limit(极 限)as C approaches(趋于)infinity(无
穷).

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